Details Abstract Shocks to inflation can have longer-lasting effects in the presence of second-round effects.
Wage-setting systems are more likely to trigger second-round effects if wage indexation is widespread in labour agreements. To derive a euro area indicator crypto fear indicator the prevalence of wage indexation, characteristics of national wage indexation schemes are crypto fear indicator by country shares in euro area private sector employment. For most of the employees covered by automatic wage indexation, the inflation measure is backward-looking and includes energy.
These indexation mechanisms are usually backward-looking with inflation measures that include energy. For more than half of the employees in the euro area, inflation does not play a formal role in wage setting but can be an important factor in wage negotiations.
Where there is no formal role for inflation, inflation developments can be more easily disregarded in times of high uncertainty, with the focus being on job security instead, for example.
Since the Great Financial Crisis, indexation regimes with a formal role for inflation in wage setting have become somewhat less prevalent in the euro area. Overall, the likelihood of euro area wage-setting schemes triggering second-round effects based on inflation indexation is relatively limited, particularly with regard to energy inflation.
Recent hikes in energy inflation can be expected to lead to some automatic wage increases, mainly in minimum wages in some countries, affecting only a small share of private sector employees.
However, a broadly based and automatic pass-through to wage growth through wage indexation mechanisms seems rather unlikely.